American Census: a Social History. Margo J. Anderson, Yale University Press, 1988. (317/An2) Anderson demonstrates that throughout its history the census has been a highly politicized process. Early attempts at apportionment, the counting of slaves and freed blacks, and later the effects of industrialization and immigration all brought political pressure from varying sides to bear on the Census Bureau. Political controversy over the questions included on the census and the statistical methods employed are shown not to be new either.
Equal Representation: a Study of Legislative and Congressional Apportionment in Wisconsin. H. Rupert Theobald, Legislative Reference Bureau, Reprinted from the 1970 Wisconsin Blue Book, 1970. (328.135/W7a) This comprehensive history of apportionment law in Wisconsin up to 1970 examines the state’s constitutional mandates and their implementation through various legislative actions, population changes, and Wisconsin and United States Supreme Court cases. The study includes a number of historical maps and tables, summaries of relevant Wisconsin case law, and a chronology of Wisconsin apportionment from 1836 to 1969.
Political Gerrymandering and the Courts. Edited by Bernard Grofman, Agathon Press, 1990. (328.13/G89a) This collection of essays on partisan gerrymandering includes several articles on the Davis v. Bandemer case. Additional case studies from Indiana and California in the 1970s and 1980s are also reviewed.
"Politics ‘98 - What Really Matters: Power to Redistrict is the True November Prize". John Nichols, Nation, November 2, 1998 (328.135/N51) http://www.thenation.com/1998/issue/981102/1102nich.htm This article describes how both national parties are focusing their attention more closely on state elections in the hopes of gaining more influence over the 2000 redistricting process at the state level.
Race, Redistricting and Representation. David T. Canon, University of Chicago Press, 1999. (328.134/C16) Canon argues that rather than creating a type of "political apartheid," black majority districts actually promote a "politics of commonality" by opening the political process to black candidates who fairly represent the interests of both blacks and whites. In making his case, Canon analyzes the political and legal debates for and against racial redistricting. He then compares the legislative behavior of members of the Congressional Black Caucus to white House members representing districts with black populations of 25% or more.
The Realists’ Guide to Redistricting: Avoiding the Legal Pitfalls. J. Gerald Hebert, Donald B. Verrilli, et al. Jenner and Block, 1997. (328.135/H351) A succinct guide to navigating the legal and judicial constraints of redistricting written by attorneys with firsthand experience in redistricting litigation. Much of the book focuses on the Voting Rights Act.
The Reapportionment Puzzle. Bruce E. Cain, University of California Press, 1984. (328.135/C12) A thorough description of the redistricting process and the conflicting interests involved, based on the experience of a consultant to the California Assembly’s Election and Reapportionment Committee during the 1980 redistricting.
Redistricting Case Summaries for the 90s. National Conference of State Legislatures, November 1998. (328.135/N214b) This handbook is a compilation of redistricting court case summaries arranged by state. It includes an index of cases, a subject index, and contacts for each state.
Redistricting Law 2000. National Conference of State Legislatures, Redistricting Task Force, February 1999. (328.135/N214c) A comprehensive guide to federal and state law involving redistricting, this book is arranged in chapters by subject with relevant caselaw integrated extensively into the text. An index to cases cited, a glossary, and a lengthy bibliography are also included. Several appendices compare the redistricting laws and procedures across the 50 states.
"Redistricting: the Other Y2K Problem". Tim Storey, State Legislatures, September 1998, p.19–22. (328.11/N214/v.24, no.8) Storey outlines the steps states must take to prepare for the redistricting process, including working with the Census Bureau, purchasing technology for database construction and mapping, and allocating staff.
State Redistricting Profiles 2000. National Conference of State Legislatures, October 1999. (328.135/N214d) This recently published guide contains concise factual information about each state’s legal and organizational framework for redistricting. Entries for each state include constitutional and statutory citations, statistical information about congressional and legislative districts, political entities responsible for redistricting, deadlines, Voting Rights Act information, and state contacts.
Ten Secrets of Redistricting". Steve Miller, State Legislatures, September 1999, p. 26–29. (328.11/N214/v.25, no.8) Miller presents 10 guidelines for effectively managing a redistricting office based on the author’s experience as the staff director for Mississippi’s redistricting committee.
Who Counts? The Politics of Census–taking in Contemporary America. Margo J. Anderson and Stephen E. Fienberg, Russell Sage Foundation, 1999. (317/An2a) The implementation and outcomes of the past three censuses are detailed in this thorough analysis of the statistical methods employed by the Census Bureau. The author devotes considerable attention to the undercount in previous censuses, the use of sampling methods in the 2000 census, and the measuring of racial and ethnic minority populations.
Please note: Several new books have recently been published on redistricting. As these books are added to our collection, they will appear on the library’s Selective List of Recent Acquisitions.
http://www.census.gov/clo/www/redistricting.html - Census 2000. This Census Bureau site explains how the Bureau will cooperate with state and local governments to provide population totals for election precincts according to P.L. 94–171. The site includes detailed guidelines and a lengthy bibliography on the Redistricting Data Program.
http://www.igc.org/cvd/redistricting/index.html - Center for Voting and Democracy: Redistricting Introduction and Index. The Center is a nonprofit organization that informs the public about voting systems that promote voter participation and fair representation. Their redistricting page contains links to a dozen reports on their web site related to proportional representation, race conscious districting, and partisan gerrymandering.
http://www.ncsl.org/programs/legman/elect/redist.htm - NCSL Elections and Redistricting. A central source for information on NCSL’s Redistricting Task Force, their meetings, reports, and publications. The site also contains links to state sites for legislative redistricting maps and/or committees as well as related U.S. Supreme Court cases. For best results use the site’s search engine with the keyword redistricting.